ホーム「とびら」の紹介サンプル教材Sample: Grammar in Depth (volume 1)

Sample: Grammar in Depth (volume 1)

© 2021 Michio Tsutsui
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Table of contents

A. Basic sentence structures

1. XはN1-Prt1 (N2-Prt2) V
2. XはYです/だ
3. XはYがZ

B. Particles

1. Case particles
2. Adverbial particles
3. Sentence particles
4. Noun-listing particles
5. Prenominal particles
6. Preverbal particle に

C. Polite forms and plain forms

D. Aspect

1. V-te いる
2. もう and まだ

E. Auxiliaries

1. Da
2. (V-te) いる
3. (V-te) みる
4. (V-masu) たい
5. (Adj(i)-stem) がる
6. そう [Impressions]

F. Nominalizers

1. の
2. こと

G. Connecting verbs, adjectives, and sentences using te-forms

H. Important sentence patterns

1. ある/いる sentences (=existential sentences)
2. ~ませんか vs. ~ましょう
3. んです sentences
4. ~たり~たりする
5. Reporting sentences
6. Comparative sentences

I. Ellipsis

1. The first person and second person pronouns
2. The same topics in second sentences
3. Elements that appeared in the preceding sentences
4. The same predicates in questions
5. Sentences after “S んですが”

Sample contents: A. Basic sentence structures

There are three basic sentence structures in Japanese: (1) X は N-Prt V, (2) X は Y です/だ, and (3) X は Y が Z.

1. X は N1-Prt1 (N2-Prt2) V (See L.2 #2)

“X は N1-Prt1 (N2-Prt2) V” is probably the most common sentence structure in Japanese. The types of N-Prt combinations that appear in a sentence depend on the verb.

  1. 東大寺とうだいじ奈良ならにあります。(The Todaiji Temple is in Nara.)
  2. わたし自転車じてんしゃ学校がっこうきます。(I go to school by bike.)
  3. エリックさんはカレンさんにスカーフをあげました。(Eric gave Karen a scarf.)

2. X は Y です/だ (See L.1 #2)

The sentence structure “X は Y です/だ” can be used for the English expression “X is Y.” Here, X is a noun, and Y is either a noun or a na-adjective.

  1. わたし山下やましたです。(I’m Yamashita.)
  2. ケントさんはカナダじんです。(Kent-san is a Canadian.)
  3. サラさんの部屋へやはきれいです。(Sarah’s room is clean.)

In addition to the above use, “X は Y です” can be used to express a variety of other meanings when those meanings are easily understood from context. For example, in (4), Mike first tells Ellen that he is majoring in math. After that, Ellen can say what she is majoring in using “X は Y です” without repeating the same verb.

  1. マイク: わたし数学すうがく専攻せんこうしています。(I’m majoring in math.)
    エレン: そうですか。わたし経済学けいざいがくです。(Is that so? I’m majoring in economics. (lit. I’m economics.))

(5) provides another example:

  1. 田中たなかさんはいま、ニューヨークです。

The literal meaning of this sentence is “Tanaka-san is New York now.” However, since it is obvious that Tanaka-san is not New York, it is interpreted as “Tanaka-san is in New York now,” “Tanaka-san lives in New York now,” “Tanaka-san works in New York now,” etc. depending on the context. As a matter of fact, in many situations, “X は Y です” is used instead of “X は Y にあります/います” because it is easy to interpret “X は Y です” as “X exists in Y” when Y represents a location, as in (6) and (7).

  1. 本屋ほんや学生がくせい会館かいかん一階いっかいです。(The bookstore is on the first floor of the Student Union.)
  2. トイレはどこですか。(Where is the restroom?)
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